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Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Birmingham, Dept of Chemical Engineering.
|Statement||by Nicholas John Bough Knight.|
Download production of flocculating agents from microbial sources
Flocculating agents have developed significantly in the past three decades, and this has led to a remarkable improvement in the use and performance of many types of separation equipment.
Different factors influence the behavior of flocculants, including the pH and conductivity of the medium, the size and charge distribution of the particulates. Bioflocculant production by the bacteria was optimal when glucose ( % flocculating activity) and ammonium nitrate ( % flocculating activity) were used as carbon and nitrogen sources.
The initial pH of the production medium is one of the factors affecting the production and flocculating activity of the bioflocculant [5,18,24]. Similarly, in this case, the bioflocculant production and activity of the studied bacteria strain was affected by the initial pH of the production medium, thus affecting flocculating by: Flocculating agents are chemical additives that cause suspended solids to form aggregates called flocs.
These agents are used in water treatment, municipal and industrial waste treatment, mineral processing, and papermaking. Flocculating agents are either inorganic salts or water‐soluble organic polymers. Pullulan production by batch cultures is related to the formation of yeast-like cells (McNeil et al.,Reeslev and Jensen,Reeslev et al.,Reeslev et al., ).
It has also been reported that bioreactor design and nitrogen sources affect pullulan production by A. pullulans, but its morphology has no affect (Gibbs & Seviour, ).Cited by: Flocculating agents make the suspended particles in the liquid to agglomerate and form flocs.
Once agglomerated, these fine suspended particles, now in the form flocs, can easily be filtered out. Flocs resulting from the combined influence of coagulation and flocculation play a vital role in solid-liquid separation processes.
Among all identified bioflocculant-producing bacteria, Streptococcus sp. showed the highest (14 %) flocculating activity. Therefore, the bacteria that show best flocculating performance in terms of the highest flocculating activity could be suggested as potential bioflocculant agents in treating wastewater from aquaculture industry.
Pure bacterial cultures can be flocculated by a variety of chemical flocculants. Flocculation of bacteria will assist in their recovery, especially where the cells themselves are of interest, as in microbial protein production.
Studies with several genera of bacteria indicate that. Microbial Flocculation of Waste Liquids and Oil Emulsion by a Bioflocculant from Organic synthetic high polymer flocculating agents have been used in a wide range of applications, which include harmful to the environmentand a dangerous source of pollution that.
Microbial flocculation is investigated as a separation technique for harvesting marine microalgae for the production of biodiesel. Organic carbon (acetate, glucose or glycerine) was used as substrate for the growth of flocculating microbes in situ.
Under stress, due to nutrient depletion, these microbes produced extracellular polymeric substances that promote flocculation of the. Some microbes have the natural ability to make these flocculating agents and secrete them in water.
Use of such microbes in the product helps in achieving good flocculating characters naturally. Some of the microbial genera that are known to enhance floc formation include Bacillus, Achromobacter, Citromonas Aerobacter, Alcaligenes.
Introduction. Flocculating agents, widely used in industrial processes such as wastewater treatment, are classified into three groups i.e., inorganic flocculants such as aluminium sulphate; organic synthetic high polymer flocculants such as polyacrylamide (PAM); natural flocculants or bioflocculant such as microbial flocculant.Synthetic high polymer flocculants have been most.
High cost of biomass recovery is one of the bottlenecks for developing cost-effective processes with microalgae, particularly for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals through biorefinery, and microalgal biomass recovery through cell flocculation is a promising strategy.
Some microalgae are naturally flocculated whose cells can be harvested by simple sedimentation. fermentation agent. Acetobacter – Acetobacter is an acetic acid producing bacteria that converts sugar to alcohol through aerobic metabolism.
It is the same bacteria used to make vinegar and imparts a sharp, vinegar-like sourness to beer. When combined with malt flavors it results in something resembling balsamic vinegar. The factors that affect the production of microbial flocculant include carbon source, nitrogen source, carbon and nitrogen ratio, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, culture time, and so on [24,25].
Some microorganisms need the stimulation of metal ions to produce the required biological flocculants [26,27]. The production, optimization, and characterization of the bioflocculant QZ-7 synthesized by a novel Bacillus salmalaya strain SI isolated from a private farm soil in Selangor, Malaysia, are reported.
The flocculating activity of bioflocculant QZ-7 present in the selected strain was found to be %. The optimal culture for flocculant production was achieved after cultivation at °C. The Technology of Enzyme Production—General Considerations: In general, the techniques employed for microbial production of enzymes are comparable to the methods used for manufacture of other industrial salient features are briefly described.
Selection of organisms. Formulation of medium. Production process. Microbiology, study of microorganisms, or microbes, a diverse group of generally minute, simple life-forms that include bacteria, archaea, algae, fungi, protozoa, and field is concerned with the structure, function, and classification of such organisms and.
The production of enzymes by bioprocesses is a good alternative to add value to agroindustry residues. The bioconversion of the agro waste material into fuel has received considerable interest. The term industrial microbiology refers to the use of microorganisms for industrial purposes.
Such things as anticoagulants, antidepressants, vasodilators, herbicides, insecticides, plant hormones, enzymes, and vitamins have been isolated from microorganisms or produced in large quantities by genetically engineering the organisms with foreign genes.
Microbial enzyme production is an essential industrial process, owing to the extraordinary performance and multitude of applications of enzymes from various microbes.
These microbes are active under a varied range of physical and chemical conditions. Microbial enzymes are a potential source of replacement in the absence or deficiency of human. Food additive, any of various chemical substances added to foods to produce specific desirable ves such as salt, spices, and sulfites have been used since ancient times to preserve foods and make them more the increased processing of foods in the 20th century, there came a need for both the greater use of and new types of food additives.
Advantages of Production of SCP Large-scale production of microbial biomass has many advantages over the traditional methods for producing proteins for food or feed.
Microorganisms have a high rate of multiplication to hence rapid succession of generation (algae: hours, yeast: hours, bacteria. Nanoparticles have been studied extensively for their antimicrobial properties in order to fight super bug bacteria.
Several characteristics in particular make nanoparticles strong candidates as a traditional antibiotic drug alternative. Firstly, they have a high surface area to volume ratio, which increases contact area with target organisms. production plant is needed. Characteristics of important contaminants, contamination routes and factors enhancing microbial contamination of process line are important items covered in this Microbial contaminants and contamination routes in food industry -seminar by international lecturers and participants who have provided research studies and.
Three commercial water soluble flocculating agents supplied by Allied Colloids, UK, were used in the present work. These polymeric compounds (possibly, polyacrylamide) of high molecular weight contain cationic, anionic and non-ionic functional groups.
The flocculating agents had the following brand names viz. (a) magnafloc (cationic) (b. The fermentation is performed usually by acetic acid bacteria, from the genus Acetobacter, from the alcohol in variety of sources (e.g., apple cider, wine, potatoes, fermented grain).
Acetobacter bacteria are Gram negative aerobic rods. They are naturally present in environments where alcohol is being produced and can be isolated from damaged.
Fourteen strains of the genera Rhodococcus, Nocardia, and Corynebacterium were found to produce substances which flocculate kaolin clay. Rhodococcus erythropolis produces a kind of the microbial flocculant.
It had very interesting and unique flocculating characteristics. It could efficiently flocculate all suspended solids in aqueous solution tested. Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process in which colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying action differs from precipitation in that, prior to flocculation, colloids are merely suspended in a liquid and not actually dissolved in a the flocculated system, there is no formation of.
This book is one of a series of texts developed to support the development of microbial aspects in the third edition of WHO's Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality and to provide guidance to policy-makers, regulators and practitioners in aspects of planning and implementation.
Various microbial strains (bacteria, fungi, and microalgae) produced polymers variable in composition (protein, cellulose, polysaccharide, etc) with interesting flocculation properties such as the ability to remove large spectrum of pollutants (organic and inorganic materials, etc) from wastewater and the stability over a wide range of temperature, pHs and salt concentrations.
Suspended particles vary in source, charge, particle size, shape, and density. Correct application of coagulation and flocculation depends upon these factors.
Suspended solids in water have a negative charge and since they have the same type of surface charge. Microbial flocculent, the secondary metabolites with flocculating activity and produced by microorganisms , is a new water treatment agent with efficient, safe, natural degradation characteristic to flocculate and sediment the solid suspended particles and colloidal particles which are not easily degradable in water [2, 3].Most bioflocculants are still in the developmental stage and under.
Microorganism contamination at various stages of food chain is one of the major causes for food spoilage that ultimately leads to food waste, increasing food insecurity issues and substantial economic losses.
Various synthetic chemical preservatives are being used to control microbial food spoilage and to extend product shelf life. Researchers and consumers are discouraging the use of. etiology of many infectious diseases. The original rules for the proof of microbial etiology (Koch's Postulates): a.
Find the bacteria in all cases of the disease. Grow the bacteria in pure cultures. Reproduce the disease (in animals) using the pure culture. Reisolate the bacteria in pure culture from the experimental infection.
Microbial Flocculants is a kind of metabolic products with flocculating activity being produced by microbes and secreted outside of cells. It has the characteristics of easy degradability, highly efficiency, non-toxicity and non-secondary pollution. The flocculation mechanism of Microbial Flocculants is more complicated than the conventional flocculation theories.
New and Future Developments in Microbial Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Microbial Biotechnology in Agro-environmental Sustainability describes, in detail, the various roles of microbial resources in the management of crop diseases and how microbes can be used as a source of income for biomass and bioenergy addition, the book covers microbial inoculants as bio-fertilizers to.
the agent(s) in use and the name and phone number of the investigator. An insect and rodent control program is in effect.
Special Practices None C. Safety Equipment (Primary Barriers) 1. Special containment devices or equipment such as a biological safety cabinet are generally not required for manipulations of agents.
Sources of biosurfactants: Many of the biosurfactant producing microorganisms are found to be hydrocarbon degraders (Willumsen and Karlson, ; Volkering et al., ).However in the past decades, many studies have showed the effects of microbially produced surfactants not only on bioremediation but also on enhanced oil recovery (Volkering et al., ; Tabatabaee et al., ).
Corals growing on the reefs of the Bahamas produce an active agent that kills multi-resistant tuberculosis bacteria. Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have managed to produce. Antibacterials are divided into two broad groups according to their biological effect on microorganisms: bactericidal agents kill bacteria, and bacteriostatic agents slow down or stall bacterial growth.
Key Terms. sterilization: Any process that eliminates or kills all forms of microbial life present on a surface, solution, or solid compound.Bacteria General Information on Bacteria Bacteria are the most important and troublesome of all the microorganisms for the food processor.
Bacteria are single-celled living bodies. Varying in length from 1/25, to 1/1, of an inch, they are among the smallest living creatures known.The Fundamentals of Bacteriology. This book covers the following topics related to bacteriology: Historical Introduction, Position of Bacteria, Relationships to Algae, Yeasts, Molds, Protozoa, Morphology, Physiology, The study of bacteria: Culture Media, Methods of Using Culture Media, Isolation of Bacteria in Pure Culture, Study of the Morphology of Bacteria, Study of the Physiology of.